Linux架构中代理服务器配置与负载均衡

本期内容概要

代理

负载均衡

内容详细

1、代理

1.主要作用: 将流量平均分配2.代理的方式 01 正向代理 外部想要访问服务器 先找代理 找到之后还需要找服务器 应用:VPN 02 反向代理 外部想要访问服务器 只需要找代理 不需要找服务器 应用:负载均衡

1.1、Nginx代理服务支持的协议

ngx_http_uwsgi_module : Python协议ngx_http_fastcgi_module : PHP 协议ngx_http_scgi_module: Java协议ngx_http_v2_module: Golang协议ngx_http_proxy_module : HTTP协议

1.2、Nginx代理实践

1.2.1、部署web01服务器

# 部署web01 [[email protected] ~]# cd /etc/nginx/conf.d 将所有 .conf 文件先打包 [[email protected] conf.d]# vim game5.confserver {listen 80;server_name 192.168.15.7;location / {root /opt/Super_Marie; index index.html;}} [[email protected] ~]# systemctl restart nginx 浏览器访问 192.168.15.7 正常载入游戏就是正常部署web01

1.2.2、部署lb01服务器

# 部署Nginx(编译安装 不能yum安装 否则负载均衡可能无法使用)1.下载Nginx源代码包 [[email protected] ~]# wget 解压 [[email protected] ~]# tar -xf nginx-1.20.2.tar.gz3.进入源代码目录 [[email protected] ~]# cd nginx-1.20.24.安装依赖包 [[email protected] nginx-1.20.2]# yum install openssl openssl-devel zlib zlib-devel -y5.设置编译参数 [[email protected] nginx-1.20.2]# ./configure--with-http_gzip_static_module--with-stream--with-http_ssl_module6.编译 [[email protected] nginx-1.20.2]# make7.安装 [[email protected] nginx-1.20.2]# make install8.优化 [[email protected] nginx-1.20.2]# mkdir /etc/nginx [[email protected] nginx-1.20.2]# mv /usr/local/nginx/conf/* /etc/nginx/ [[email protected] nginx-1.20.2]# mkdir /etc/nginx/conf.d [[email protected] nginx-1.20.2]# cd /etc/nginx/conf.d [[email protected] conf.d]# cd .. [[email protected] nginx]# >nginx.conf [[email protected] nginx]# vim nginx.conf 内容可以从web中复制 [[email protected] nginx]# cat /etc/nginx/nginx.conf 将所有内容写入 [[email protected] nginx]# vim nginx.conf 但是 usernginx; 要改为 userwww; [[email protected] nginx]# groupadd www -g 666 [[email protected] nginx]# useradd www -u 666 -g 666 -M -r -s /sbin/nologin [[email protected] nginx]# vim /usr/lib/systemd/system/nginx.service 写入内容可以从web中复制 [[email protected] nginx]# cat /usr/lib/systemd/system/nginx.service[Unit]Description=nginx - high performance web serverDocumentation==network-online.target remote-fs.target nss-lookup.targetWants=network-online.target[Service]Type=forkingPIDFile=/var/run/nginx.pidExecStart=/usr/sbin/nginx -c /etc/nginx/nginx.confExecReload=/bin/sh -c "/bin/kill -s HUP $(/bin/cat /var/run/nginx.pid)"ExecStop=/bin/sh -c "/bin/kill -s TERM $(/bin/cat /var/run/nginx.pid)"[Install]WantedBy=multi-user.target [[email protected] nginx]# cd /usr/local/nginx/sbin [[email protected] sbin]# mv /usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx /usr/sbin/ [[email protected] sbin]# ln -s /etc/nginx/nginx.conf /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf [[email protected] sbin]# mkdir /var/log/nginx [[email protected] sbin]# systemctl start nginx [[email protected] sbin]# nginx -t--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------# 部署反向代理 [[email protected] sbin]# cd /etc/nginx/conf.d [[email protected] conf.d]# vim game.confserver {listen 80;server_name _;location / {proxy_pass :80;}} [[email protected] conf.d]# systemctl restart nginx

1.3、Nginx代理常用参数

1.3.1、添加发往后端服务器的请求头信息

Syntax:proxy_set_header field value;Default:proxy_set_header Host $http_host;proxy_set_header Connection close;Context:http, server, location [[email protected] conf.d]# cd /etc/nginx/conf.d [[email protected] conf.d]# vim game.conf 在location / {}内 写入以下内容:# 用户请求的时候HOST的值是linux.proxy.com, 那么代理服务会像后端传递请求的还是linux.proxy.comproxy_set_header Host $http_host;# 将$remote_addr的值放进变量X-Real-IP中,$remote_addr的值为客户端的ipproxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;# 客户端通过代理服务访问后端服务, 后端服务通过该变量会记录真实客户端地址proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for; [[email protected] conf.d]# nginx -tnginx: the configuration file /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf syntax is oknginx: configuration file /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf test is successful [[email protected] conf.d]# systemctl restart nginx

1.3.2、代理到后端的TCP连接、响应、返回等超时时间

#nginx代理与后端服务器连接超时时间(代理连接超时)Syntax: proxy_connect_timeout time;Default: proxy_connect_timeout 60s;Context: http, server, location #nginx代理等待后端服务器的响应时间Syntax:proxy_read_timeout time;Default:proxy_read_timeout 60s;Context:http, server, location #后端服务器数据回传给nginx代理超时时间Syntax: proxy_send_timeout time;Default: proxy_send_timeout 60s;Context: http, server, location [[email protected] conf.d]# vim game.conf 在location / {}内 写入以下内容:proxy_connect_timeout 1s;proxy_read_timeout 3s;proxy_send_timeout 3s; [[email protected] conf.d]# nginx -tnginx: the configuration file /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf syntax is oknginx: configuration file /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf test is successful [[email protected] conf.d]# systemctl restart nginx

1.3.2、proxy_buffer代理缓冲区

#nignx会把后端返回的内容先放到缓冲区当中,然后再返回给客户端,边收边传, 不是全部接收完再传给客户端Syntax: proxy_buffering on | off;Default: proxy_buffering on;Context: http, server, location #设置nginx代理保存用户头信息的缓冲区大小Syntax: proxy_buffer_size size;Default: proxy_buffer_size 4k|8k;Context: http, server, location #proxy_buffers 缓冲区Syntax: proxy_buffers number size;Default: proxy_buffers 8 4k|8k;Context: http, server, location [[email protected] conf.d]# vim game.conf 在location / {}内 写入以下内容:proxy_buffering on;proxy_buffer_size 8k;proxy_buffers 8 8k; [[email protected] conf.d]# nginx -tnginx: the configuration file /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf syntax is oknginx: configuration file /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf test is successful [[email protected] conf.d]# systemctl restart nginx

1.3.3、配置代理优化文件

[[email protected] conf.d]# vim /etc/nginx/proxy_paramsproxy_set_header Host $http_host;proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;proxy_connect_timeout 10s;proxy_read_timeout 10s;proxy_send_timeout 10s;proxy_buffering on;proxy_buffer_size 8k;proxy_buffers 8 8k; [[email protected] conf.d]# vim game.conf 只保留并修改为以下内容即可:server {listen 80;server_name _;location / {proxy_pass :80;include /etc/nginx/proxy_params;}} [[email protected] conf.d]# nginx -tnginx: the configuration file /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf syntax is oknginx: configuration file /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf test is successful [[email protected] conf.d]# systemctl restart nginx

2、负载均衡

# 为什么要用负载均衡? 反向代理 只会将外部请求转发给某一台服务器 负载均衡 可以实现将外部请求转发给多台服务器

2.1、负载均衡的架构

通过代理将流量按照一定的比例,转发到后端

2.2、负载均衡的实现

2.2.1、实现

将后端服务打包成一个IP连接池1.反向代理server { listen 80; server_name _; location / {proxy_pass http://[连接池]; }}2.IP连接池upstream [连接池名称] {server [ip]:[port];server [ip]:[port];server [ip]:[port];}# 实现客户请求转发至三台web服务器01 准备文件(注意在不同的服务器操作) [[email protected] opt]# cd /opt [[email protected] opt]# tar -czvf Super_Marie.tar.gz Super_Marie [[email protected] opt]# scp Super_Marie.tar.gz 172.16.1.8:/opt/ [[email protected] opt]# scp Super_Marie.tar.gz 172.16.1.9:/opt/ [[email protected] opt]# tar -xf Super_Marie.tar.gz [[email protected] opt]# tar -xf Super_Marie.tar.gz 没有安装nginx的 执行安装 [[email protected] opt]# yum install nginx -y [[email protected] opt]# yum install nginx -y 在web01中 [[email protected] conf.d]# cd /etc/nginx/conf.d [[email protected] conf.d]# scp game5.conf 172.16.1.8:/etc/nginx/conf.d/ [[email protected] conf.d]# scp game5.conf 172.16.1.9:/etc/nginx/conf.d/ 在web02 和 web03中修改配置文件 保持一致 [[email protected] ~]# cd /etc/nginx [[email protected] nginx]# vim nginx.conf [[email protected] ~]# cd /etc/nginx [[email protected] nginx]# vim nginx.conf 将 :user nginx; 改为 :user www; [[email protected] nginx]# nginx -tnginx: the configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf syntax is oknginx: configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf test is successful [[email protected] nginx]# systemctl restart nginx [[email protected] nginx]# nginx -tnginx: the configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf syntax is oknginx: configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf test is successful [[email protected] nginx]# systemctl restart nginx02 测试 在浏览器分别输入 192.168.15.7 | 192.168.15.8 | 192.168.15.9 正常访问到游戏 则正常 如果有显示页面为 前期测试的考试系统页面 则执行: systemctl disable --now httpd systemctl restart nginx 到此 后端服务器三台都部署完成03 编辑IP连接池 [[email protected] conf.d]# vim game.conf upstream supermarie {server 172.16.1.7:80;server 172.16.1.8:80;server 172.16.1.9:80;}server {listen 80;server_name _;location / {proxy_pass ;include /etc/nginx/proxy_params;}} [[email protected] conf.d]# nginx -tnginx: the configuration file /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf syntax is oknginx: configuration file /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf test is successful [[email protected] conf.d]# systemctl restart nginx04 通过监控日志测试 [[email protected] conf.d]# tail -f /var/log/nginx/access.log [[email protected] nginx]# tail -f /var/log/nginx/access.log [[email protected] nginx]# tail -f /var/log/nginx/access.log 在浏览器访问 192.168.15.5 在三个web服务器都显示日志 则代表实现了负载均衡监控日志: tail -f /var/log/nginx/access.log

2.2.2、负载均衡的比例

# 1.轮询 默认情况下,Nginx负载均衡就是轮询状态 就是将客户请求循环发送至每一台服务器(类似于平均) [[email protected] ~]# cd /opt/Super_Marie [[email protected] ~]# cd /opt/Super_Marie [[email protected] ~]# cd /opt/Super_Marie [[email protected] Super_Marie]# echo web01 > web.html [[email protected] Super_Marie]# echo web02 > web.html [[email protected] Super_Marie]# echo web03 > web.html 保持配置文件中 存在以下内容 [[email protected] conf.d]# vim game.confupstream supermarie {server 172.16.1.7:80;server 172.16.1.8:80;server 172.16.1.9:80;}server {listen 80;server_name _;location / {proxy_pass ;include /etc/nginx/proxy_params;}} 浏览器访问:192.168.15.5/web.html 循环显示 web01 web02 web03 就正常# 2.权重 Nginx中的权重0-100,数字越大,权重越高 weight数字越大 代表负载均衡会更大比例的将客户请求转发到对应的服务器 保持配置文件中 存在以下内容 [[email protected] conf.d]# vim game.confupstream supermarie {server 172.16.1.7:80 weight=9;server 172.16.1.8:80 weight=5;server 172.16.1.9:80 weight=1;}server {listen 80;server_name _;location / {proxy_pass ;include /etc/nginx/proxy_params;}} [[email protected] conf.d]# nginx -tnginx: the configuration file /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf syntax is oknginx: configuration file /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf test is successful [[email protected] conf.d]# systemctl restart nginx 浏览器访问:192.168.15.5/web.html 刷新十次 6次显示 web01 3次 显示 web02 1次 显示 web03# 3.ip_hash 每一个IP固定访问某一个后端 当有一个IP访问一台服务器时 该IP无论刷新多少次 都只会访问该服务器 其他IP只能访问其他服务器 保持配置文件中 存在以下内容 [[email protected] conf.d]# vim game.confupstream supermarie {server 172.16.1.7:80;server 172.16.1.8:80;server 172.16.1.9:80;ip_hash;}server {listen 80;server_name _;location / {proxy_pass ;include /etc/nginx/proxy_params;}} [[email protected] conf.d]# nginx -tnginx: the configuration file /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf syntax is oknginx: configuration file /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf test is successful [[email protected] conf.d]# systemctl restart nginx 浏览器访问:192.168.15.5/web.html 如果首次显示 web01 那么永远都是 web01 每一个IP固定访问某一个后端

2.3、负载均衡后端状态

# 1.down状态 暂时不分配流量 保持配置文件中 存在以下内容 [[email protected] conf.d]# vim game.confupstream supermarie {server 172.16.1.7:80 down;server 172.16.1.8:80;server 172.16.1.9:80;}server {listen 80;server_name _;location / {proxy_pass ;include /etc/nginx/proxy_params;}} [[email protected] conf.d]# nginx -tnginx: the configuration file /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf syntax is oknginx: configuration file /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf test is successful [[email protected] conf.d]# systemctl restart nginx 浏览器访问:192.168.15.5/web.html 永远都不会显示 web01 因为已经暂停流量转发给 web01了 # 2.backup状态 只有当(没有backup状态的)所有的机器全部宕机,才能启动 保持配置文件中 存在以下内容 [[email protected] conf.d]# vim game.confupstream supermarie {server 172.16.1.7:80 backup;server 172.16.1.8:80;server 172.16.1.9:80;}server {listen 80;server_name _;location / {proxy_pass ;include /etc/nginx/proxy_params;}} [[email protected] conf.d]# nginx -tnginx: the configuration file /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf syntax is oknginx: configuration file /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf test is successful [[email protected] conf.d]# systemctl restart nginx 浏览器访问:192.168.15.5/web.html 在 web02 web03 正常启动时 永远都不会显示 web01 在其余所有服务器宕机时 此时客户请求就只会访问 web01# 3.max_fails、fail_timeout(要连用) 要与 proxy_next_upstream:后端错误标识 连用 保持配置文件中 存在以下内容 [[email protected] conf.d]# vim game.confupstream supermarie {server 172.16.1.7:80 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=3s;server 172.16.1.8:80 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=3s;server 172.16.1.9:80 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=3s;}server {listen 80;server_name _;location / {proxy_pass ;proxy_next_upstream error timeout invalid_header http_500 http_502 http_503 http_404; include /etc/nginx/proxy_params;}} [[email protected] conf.d]# nginx -tnginx: the configuration file /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf syntax is oknginx: configuration file /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf test is successful [[email protected] conf.d]# systemctl restart nginx 浏览器访问:192.168.15.5/web.html 可以尝试重启 web01 | 置空 web.html 就只会显示 web02 web03proxy_next_upstream 可以跟的参数:proxy_next_upstream error timeout invalid_header http_500 http_503 http_404;error : 与服务器建立连接,向其传递请求或读取响应头时发生错误;timeout : 在与服务器建立连接,向其传递请求或读取响应头时发生超时;invalid_header : 服务器返回空的或无效的响应;http_500 : 服务器返回代码为500的响应;http_502 : 服务器返回代码为502的响应;http_503 : 服务器返回代码为503的响应;http_504 : 服务器返回代码504的响应;http_403 : 服务器返回代码为403的响应;http_404 : 服务器返回代码为404的响应;http_429 : 服务器返回代码为429的响应(1.11.13);non_idempotent : 通常,请求与 非幂等 方法(POST,LOCK,PATCH)不传递到请求是否已被发送到上游服务器(1.9.13)的下一个服务器; 启用此选项显式允许重试此类请求;off : 禁用将请求传递给下一个服务器。

2.4、负载均衡部署BBS

2.4.1、部署后端服务

# 部署Python 1.创建用户 [[email protected] ~]# groupadd django -g 888 [[email protected] ~]# useradd django -u 888 -g 888 -r -M -s /bin/sh [[email protected] ~]# groupadd django -g 888 [[email protected] ~]# useradd django -u 888 -g 888 -r -M -s /bin/sh2.安装依赖软件 [[email protected] ~]# yum install python3 libxml* python-devel gcc* pcre-devel openssl-devel python3-devel -y [[email protected] ~]# yum install python3 libxml* python-devel gcc* pcre-devel openssl-devel python3-devel -y# 部署Django和uwsgi 3.安装Django和uwsgi [[email protected] ~]# scp bbs.zip 172.16.1.8:/opt/ [[email protected] ~]# scp bbs.zip 172.16.1.9:/opt/ [[email protected] ~]# pip3 install django==1.11 [[email protected] ~]# pip3 install uwsgi [[email protected] ~]# pip3 install pymysql [[email protected] ~]# pip3 install django==1.11 [[email protected] ~]# pip3 install uwsgi [[email protected] ~]# pip3 install pymysql 4.创建项目 [[email protected] ~]# cd /opt/ [[email protected] opt]# unzip bbs.zip [[email protected] opt]# cd bbs [[email protected] bbs]# vim bbs/settings.py 修改下面两处ALLOWED_HOSTS = [*]DATABASES = {default: {ENGINE: django.db.backends.mysql,NAME: bbs,USER: root,PASSWORD: ,HOST: 172.16.1.61,PORT: 3306,CHARSET: utf8}} [[email protected] ~]# cd /opt/ [[email protected] opt]# unzip bbs.zip [[email protected] opt]# cd bbs [[email protected] bbs]# vim bbs/settings.py 修改下面两处ALLOWED_HOSTS = [*]DATABASES = {default: {ENGINE: django.db.backends.mysql,NAME: bbs,USER: root,PASSWORD: ,HOST: 172.16.1.61,PORT: 3306,CHARSET: utf8}}# 启动测试[[email protected] bbs]# python3 manage.py runserver 0.0.0.0:8000[[email protected] bbs]# python3 manage.py runserver 0.0.0.0:8000# 配置并启动 5.编辑项目配置文件 [[email protected] bbs]# vim /opt/bbs/myweb_uwsgi.ini[uwsgi]# 端口号socket= :8000# 指定项目的目录chdir = /opt/bbs# wsgi文件路径wsgi-file = bbs/wsgi.py# 模块wsgi路径module= bbs.wsgi# 是否开启master进程master= true# 工作进程的最大数目processes = 4# 结束后是否清理文件vacuum= true [[email protected] bbs]# vim /opt/bbs/myweb_uwsgi.ini[uwsgi]# 端口号socket= :8000# 指定项目的目录chdir = /opt/bbs# wsgi文件路径wsgi-file = bbs/wsgi.py# 模块wsgi路径module= bbs.wsgi# 是否开启master进程master= true# 工作进程的最大数目processes = 4# 结束后是否清理文件vacuum= true 6.启动uwsgi 测试 [[email protected] bbs]# uwsgi --ini myweb_uwsgi.ini --uid 666 启动 [[email protected] bbs]# uwsgi -d --ini myweb_uwsgi.ini --uid 666[uWSGI] getting INI configuration from myweb_uwsgi.ini [[email protected] bbs]# uwsgi --ini myweb_uwsgi.ini --uid 666 启动 [[email protected] bbs]# uwsgi -d --ini myweb_uwsgi.ini --uid 666[uWSGI] getting INI configuration from myweb_uwsgi.ini-d: 以守护进程方式运行--ini : 指定配置文件路径--uid : 指定uid 7.编辑Nginx配置文件 [[email protected] conf.d]# vim /etc/nginx/conf.d/python.conf [[email protected] bbs]# vim /etc/nginx/conf.d/python.conf [[email protected] bbs]# vim /etc/nginx/conf.d/python.conf 写入以下内容:server {listen 80;server_name py.test.com;location / { include uwsgi_params;uwsgi_pass 127.0.0.1:8000;uwsgi_read_timeout 2;uwsgi_param UWSGI_SCRIPT bbs.wsgi;uwsgi_param UWSGI_CHDIR /opt/bbs;indexindex.html index.htm;client_max_body_size 35m;}} 8.重启Nginx配置 [[email protected]01 conf.d]# nginx -tnginx: the configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf syntax is oknginx: configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf test is successful [[email protected] conf.d]# systemctl restart nginx[[email protected] conf.d]# nginx -tnginx: the configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf syntax is oknginx: configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf test is successful [[email protected] conf.d]# systemctl restart nginx [[email protected] conf.d]# nginx -tnginx: the configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf syntax is oknginx: configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf test is successful [[email protected] conf.d]# systemctl restart nginx

2.4.2、部署负载均衡

[[email protected] conf.d]# cd /etc/nginx/conf.d[[email protected] conf.d]# cp game.conf python.conf[[email protected] conf.d]# vim python.confupstream bbs {server 172.16.1.7:80 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=3s;server 172.16.1.8:80 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=3s;server 172.16.1.9:80 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=3s;}server {listen 80;server_name py.test.com;location / {proxy_pass ;proxy_next_upstream error timeout invalid_header http_500 http_502 http_503 http_404; include /etc/nginx/proxy_params;}}浏览器连接 py.test.com 如下图就正常了

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